Genital vesicles Neonatal herpes. Varicella zoster. Chickenpox Shingles. Infectious mononucleosis Burkitt lymphoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treat symptoms. Mononucleosis Cytomegalic inclusion disease Pneumonia. HHV Type 6. Roseola fevers, seizures, rash.
HHV Type 8. Kaposi's sarcoma.
Hepatitis B. IFN Lamivudine. Molluscum contagiosum. Molluscum contagiosum wart-like benign tumors. Self-limiting Ritonavir. Acute respiratory disease Pharyngoconjunctivitis Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis Gastroenteritis pediatric. Human papilloma virus. Viruses infect all cellular life and, although viruses occur universally, each cellular species has its own specific range that often infect only that species. Viruses are important pathogens of livestock.
Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses. Canine parvovirus is caused by a small DNA virus and infections are often fatal in pups. There are many types of plant virus, but often they cause only a loss of yield , and it is not economically viable to try to control them.
Plant viruses are often spread from plant to plant by organisms , known as vectors. These are normally insects, but some fungi, nematode worms , and single-celled organisms have been shown to be vectors. When control of plant virus infections is considered economical, for perennial fruits, for example, efforts are concentrated on killing the vectors and removing alternate hosts such as weeds.
Plants have elaborate and effective defence mechanisms against viruses. One of the most effective is the presence of so-called resistance R genes. Each R gene confers resistance to a particular virus by triggering localised areas of cell death around the infected cell, which can often be seen with the unaided eye as large spots. This stops the infection from spreading. Plant virus particles or virus-like particles VLPs have applications in both biotechnology and nanotechnology.
The capsids of most plant viruses are simple and robust structures and can be produced in large quantities either by the infection of plants or by expression in a variety of heterologous systems. Plant virus particles can be modified genetically and chemically to encapsulate foreign material and can be incorporated into supramolecular structures for use in biotechnology. Bacteriophages are a common and diverse group of viruses and are the most abundant biological entity in aquatic environments—there are up to ten times more of these viruses in the oceans than there are bacteria,  reaching levels of ,, bacteriophages per millilitre of seawater.
Within a short amount of time, in some cases just minutes, bacterial polymerase starts translating viral mRNA into protein. These proteins go on to become either new virions within the cell, helper proteins, which help assembly of new virions, or proteins involved in cell lysis. Viral enzymes aid in the breakdown of the cell membrane, and, in the case of the T4 phage , in just over twenty minutes after injection over three hundred phages could be released.
The major way bacteria defend themselves from bacteriophages is by producing enzymes that destroy foreign DNA. These enzymes, called restriction endonucleases , cut up the viral DNA that bacteriophages inject into bacterial cells. Some viruses replicate within archaea : these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes unique shapes. These enable archaea to retain sections of viral DNA, which are then used to target and eliminate subsequent infections by the virus using a process similar to RNA interference.
The organic molecules released from the dead bacterial cells stimulate fresh bacterial and algal growth, in a process known as the viral shunt. In January , scientists reported that million viruses, mainly of marine origin, are deposited daily from the Earth 's atmosphere onto every square meter of the planet's surface, as the result of a global atmospheric stream of viruses, circulating above the weather system, but below the altitude of usual airline travel, distributing viruses around the planet.
Like any organism, marine mammals are susceptible to viral infections. In and , thousands of harbour seals were killed in Europe by phocine distemper virus.
Viruses are an important natural means of transferring genes between different species, which increases genetic diversity and drives evolution. Viruses are important to the study of molecular and cell biology as they provide simple systems that can be used to manipulate and investigate the functions of cells. Geneticists often use viruses as vectors to introduce genes into cells that they are studying.
This is useful for making the cell produce a foreign substance, or to study the effect of introducing a new gene into the genome. In similar fashion, virotherapy uses viruses as vectors to treat various diseases, as they can specifically target cells and DNA. It shows promising use in the treatment of cancer and in gene therapy.
Eastern European scientists have used phage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics for some time, and interest in this approach is increasing, because of the high level of antibiotic resistance now found in some pathogenic bacteria. Industrial processes have been recently developed using viral vectors and a number of pharmaceutical proteins are currently in pre-clinical and clinical trials.
Virotherapy involves the use of genetically modified viruses to treat diseases. Talimogene laherparepvec T-VEC , for example, is a modified herpes simplex virus that has had a gene, which is required for viruses to replicate in healthy cells, deleted and replaced with a human gene GM-CSF that stimulates immunity. When this virus infects cancer cells, it destroys them and in doing so the presence the GM-CSF gene attracts dendritic cells from the surrounding tissues of the body.
The dendritic cells process the dead cancer cells and present components of them to other cells of the immune system. Current trends in nanotechnology promise to make much more versatile use of viruses. From the viewpoint of a materials scientist, viruses can be regarded as organic nanoparticles. Their surface carries specific tools designed to cross the barriers of their host cells.
The size and shape of viruses, and the number and nature of the functional groups on their surface, is precisely defined. As such, viruses are commonly used in materials science as scaffolds for covalently linked surface modifications.
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A particular quality of viruses is that they can be tailored by directed evolution. The powerful techniques developed by life sciences are becoming the basis of engineering approaches towards nanomaterials, opening a wide range of applications far beyond biology and medicine. Because of their size, shape, and well-defined chemical structures, viruses have been used as templates for organising materials on the nanoscale.
In this application, the virus particles separate the fluorescent dyes used for signalling to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent dimers that act as quenchers. Many viruses can be synthesised de novo "from scratch" and the first synthetic virus was created in That is, they contain all the necessary information to produce new viruses.
This technology is now being used to investigate novel vaccine strategies. As of November [update] , the full-length genome sequences of different viruses, including smallpox, are publicly available in an online database maintained by the National Institutes of Health. The ability of viruses to cause devastating epidemics in human societies has led to the concern that viruses could be weaponised for biological warfare.
Further concern was raised by the successful recreation of the infamous influenza virus in a laboratory. Smallpox virus devastated numerous societies throughout history before its eradication. Thus, much of the modern human population has almost no established resistance to smallpox, and would be vulnerable to the virus. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the type of pathogen.
For the type of malware, see Computer virus. For other uses, see Virus disambiguation. Type of non-cellular infectious agent. For a more accessible and less technical introduction to this topic, see Introduction to viruses. Main articles: History of virology and Social history of viruses. See also: Viral evolution. Structure of tobacco mosaic virus : RNA coiled in a helix of repeating protein sub-units. Structure of icosahedral adenovirus. Electron micrograph of with an illustration to show shape. Structure of chickenpox virus.
They have a lipid envelope. Structure of an icosahedral cowpea mosaic virus. Some bacteriophages inject their genomes into bacterial cells not to scale. Main article: Virus classification. Main article: Baltimore classification. See also: Viral disease. Further information: List of epidemics. Ebola top and Marburg viruses bottom. Further information: Oncovirus. See also: Immune system. Further information: Vaccination. Main articles: Animal virus and Veterinary virology.
Main article: Plant virus. Main article: Bacteriophage. Main article: Marine bacteriophage. Main article: Horizontal gene transfer. Main article: Virotherapy. Further information: Biological warfare. The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells. Biology Direct. Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?. Trends in Microbiology. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Viral metagenomics. Nature Reviews Microbiology.
Phage as agents of lateral gene transfer. Current Opinion in Microbiology. The classification of organisms at the edge of life, or problems with virus systematics. South African Journal of Science. The replicator paradigm sheds decisive light on an old but misguided question. Oxford University Press, March The Online Etymology Dictionary. In: Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. Second Edition. Van Hoosier Jr. Stearn: Botanical Latin.
History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary. Quote: "Virus: virus s. II , gen. Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology. Boston: Academic Press; Louis Pasteur — Microbes and Infection. In: Mahy B. Oxford: Academic Press; On an invisible microbe antagonistic toward dysenteric bacilli: brief note by Mr. D'Herelle, presented by Mr. Research in Microbiology. March ;87 3 — Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. The cultivation of vaccine and other viruses in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos.
Isolation of poliovirus — John Enders and the Nobel Prize. New England Journal of Medicine. In , Buist visualised one of the largest, Vaccinia virus, by optical microscopy after staining it. Vaccinia was not known to be a virus at that time. Buist J. The isolation of crystalline tobacco mosaic virus protein from diseased tomato plants.
Disintegration of tobacco mosaic virus in urea solutions. After the double helix: Rosalind Franklin's research on Tobacco mosaic virus. Nobel Prizes and the emerging virus concept. Archives of Virology. Advances in Virus Research. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS.
April ; — The long and winding road leading to the identification of the hepatitis C virus. Journal of Hepatology.
November ;51 5 — Evolutionary genomics of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Virus Research. Viral mutation rates. Journal of Virology. Cellular Microbiology. The virophage as a unique parasite of the giant mimivirus. Prion diseases: a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma. Folia Neuropathologica. Desk Encyclopedia of Human and Medical Virology. Viral evolution in the genomic age. PLOS Biology. Synthetic viruses: a new opportunity to understand and prevent viral disease.
Nature Biotechnology. Chlamydiae as symbionts in eukaryotes. Annual Review of Microbiology. Laboratory maintenance of Rickettsia rickettsii. Current Protocols in Microbiology. Negative staining of proteins. Electron Microscopy Reviews. Physical principles in the construction of regular viruses. Structure of small viruses. Biophysical Journal. Journal of General Virology. The bacteriophage T4 DNA injection machine.
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Current Opinion in Structural Biology. Experience with electron microscopy in the differential diagnosis of smallpox. Applied Microbiology. Genomic and evolutionary aspects of Mimivirus. Distant Mimivirus relative with a larger genome highlights the fundamental features of Megaviridae. Pandoraviruses: amoeba viruses with genomes up to 2. Viruses of the Archaea: a unifying view. Divided genomes and intrinsic noise. Journal of Molecular Evolution. Validation of high rates of nucleotide substitution in geminiviruses: phylogenetic evidence from East African cassava mosaic viruses.
The Journal of General Virology. Discordant antigenic drift of neuraminidase and hemagglutinin in H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses. Targeting pandemic influenza: a primer on influenza antivirals and drug resistance. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. The influenza viruses. Medical Journal of Australia.
Detection and significance of minority quasispecies of drug-resistant HIV Journal of HIV Therapy. Viral Sex. Oxford Univ Press, Evolutionary aspects of recombination in RNA viruses. Role of recombination in evolution of enteroviruses. Reviews in Medical Virology. Mechanism and application of genetic recombination in herpesviruses. Virus-host interactions during movement processes. Plant Physiology. Transport of viral proteins to the apical membranes and interaction of matrix protein with glycoproteins in the assembly of influenza viruses.
Endogenous pararetroviruses: two-faced travelers in the plant genome. Trends in Plant Science. Viruses and apoptosis. Modulation of host cell stress responses by human cytomegalovirus. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. B cells and herpesviruses: a model of lymphoproliferation. Autoimmunity Reviews. HPV and cervical cancer: updates on an established relationship. Postgraduate Medical Journal. Human cytomegalovirus: Latency and reactivation in the myeloid lineage.
Journal of Clinical Virology. Latent herpesviruses of humans. Annals of Internal Medicine. I also found this book easier to read and study from. Five additional case studies have been included, bringing the total to nineteen. The most concise, clearly written, and up-to-date review of medical microbiology and immunology. Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology is a succinct, high-yield review of the medically important aspects of microbiology and immunology. It covers both the basic and clinical aspects of bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, and immunology and also discusses important infectious diseases using an organ system approach.
This full-color laboratory manual is designed for major and non- major students taking an introductory level microbiology lab course. Whether your course caters to pre-health professional students, microbiology majors or pre-med students, everything they need for a thorough introduction to the subject of microbiology is right here. The new edition features an entirely new art program and many new or enhanced photographs throughout the book. A total of 24 new exercises have been included in this edition, the majority of which can be found in the sections regarding applied microbiology environmental microbiology and microbial genetics in particular.
Many exercises have been updated to increase readability, to produce better results, and to increase student success. The manual emphasizes content and skills as advised by the American Society for Microbiology in their Laboratory Core Curriculum. The lab experiments, which have been chosen to provide exposure to lab experiences from all areas of microbiology, will allow your students to develop insight into the process of science and experience some of the excitement associated with using a scientific approach to answering questions. An Application Based Approach portrays an up-to-date exposition of the biology of microorganisms, their tremendous biochemical diversity, and their role in environment, our health and our economy.
Supported with exhaustive pedagogy, it offers straightforward explanations of various phenomena, highlighting unique features with crisp explanations of technical terms. Written in a concise, readable outline format, this book is intended to cover topics most commonly tested on USMLE. Long considered the definitive work in its field, this new edition presents all the principles and practices readers need for a solid grounding in all aspects of clinical microbiology—bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology.
This extensively revised edition includes practical guidelines for cost-effective, clinically relevant evaluation of clinical specimens including extent of workup and abbreviated identification schemes. New chapters cover the increasingly important areas of immunologic and molecular diagnosis. Clinical correlations link microorganisms to specific disease states.
Over color plates depict salient identification features of organisms. Color plates are designed to include the salient presentations and identification features of the specific organism being presented. Authors: Kathleen Park Talaro and Barry Chess Foundations in Microbiology is an allied health microbiology text for non-science majors with a taxonomic approach to the disease chapters. It offers an engaging and accessible writing style through the use of tools such as case studies and analogies to thoroughly explain difficult microbiology concepts. We are so excited to offer a robust learning program with student-focused learning activities, allowing the student to manage their learning while you easily manage their assessment.
Detailed reports show how your assignments measure various learning objectives from the book or input your own! The Talaro Learning program will save you time while improving your students success in this course. By carefully and clearly explaining the fundamental concepts and offering vivid and appealing instructional art, Microbiology: A Human Perspective draws students back to their book again and again! The text has a concise and readable style, covers the most current concepts, and gives students the knowledge and mastery necessary to understand advances of the future.
A body systems approach is used in the coverage of diseases. It is known for its engaging writing style, instructional art program and focus on active learning. Its unique organization in the disease chapters presents students with information in the way they would encounter it in a clinical setting, instead of separating disease information by taxonomy. The proven successful digital program including Connect, LearnSmart and SmartBook gives students access to one of the most effective and successful adaptive learning resources available on the market today.
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Case An engaging and clear approach to learning complex microbiology topics and theory Praised for its exceptionally clear presentation of complex topics, this 1-selling text for microbiology non-majors provides a careful balance of concepts and applications, proven art that teaches and the most robust, dynamic media in Mastering Microbiology. Brooks, Karen C. Features Hands-on procedures include step-by-step instructions, full-color photos, and expected results, helping you achieve more accurate results.
Case studies give you the opportunity to apply your skills in a variety of diagnostic scenarios and help improve your decision-making and critical thinking skills. Genera and Species to be Considered boxes highlight all of the organisms to be discussed in each chapter, including the current name of the species as well as any previous names. Student resources on Evolve enhance your learning with review questions and procedures. Convenient, easy-to-read tables summarize key information.
Detailed, full-color illustrations aid comprehension and help you visualize concepts. A glossary of terms is found at the back of the book for quick reference. Learning objectives begin each chapter, giving you a measurable outcome to achieve by the completing the material. Review questions on the Evolve companion website are tied to learning objectives, and enhance your understanding and retention of chapter content. Reader-friendly chapters cover groups of related organisms rather than addressing all at once, including the parasitology, mycology, and virology chapters.